Last updated on: 10/18/2018 12:36:05 PM PST | Author: ProCon.org

Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by ProCon.org staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
Footnotes:

  1. David Cooper, “Raising the Federal Minimum Wage to $10.10 Would Lift Wages for Millions and Provide a Modest Economic Boost,” Economic Policy Institute website, Dec. 19, 2013
  2. Daniel Aaronson and Eric French, “How Does a Federal Minimum Wage Hike Affect Aggregate Household Spending?,” Chicago Fed Letter, Aug. 2013
  3. David Card and Alan B. Krueger, “Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania,” The American Economic Review, Sep. 1994
  4. Hristos Doucouliagos and T.D. Stanley, “Publication Selection Bias in Minimum-Wage Research? A Meta-Regression Analysis,” British Journal of Industrial Relations, June 2009
  5. Congressional Budget Office, “The Effects of Minimum-Wage Increase on Employment and Family Income,” cbo.gov, Feb. 2014
  6. Arindrajit Dube, “Minimum Wages and the Distribution of Family Incomes,” arindube.com, Dec. 30, 2013
  7. US Department of Labor, “History of Federal Minimum Wage Rates under the Fair Labor Standards Act, 1938-2009,” dol.gov (accessed Feb. 4, 2016)
  8. US Census Bureau, “Poverty Thresholds by Size of Family and Number of Children,” census.gov (accessed Feb. 24, 2016)
  9. Rachel West and Michael Reich, “The Effects of Minimum Wages on SNAP Enrollments and Expenditures,” Center for American Progress website, Mar. 2014
  10. David Cooper, “Raising the Federal Minimum Wage to $10.10 Would Save Safety Net Programs Billions and Help Ensure Businesses Are Doing Their Fair Share,” Economic Policy Institute website, Oct. 16, 2014
  11. Saving.org, “Inflation Calculator,” saving.org (accessed Feb. 3, 2016)
  12. Drew DeSilver, “Five Facts about the Minimum Wage,” Pew Research Center website, July 23, 2015
  13. Liana Fox, “Indexing the Minimum Wage for Inflation,” Economic Policy Institute website, Dec. 20, 2005
  14. Salvaotre Babones, “The Minimum Wage Is Stuck at $7.25; It Should Be $21.16 – or Higher,” Inequality.org, July 24, 2012
  15. National Economic Council, Council of Economic Advisors, Domestic Policy Council and the US Department of Labor, “The Impact of Raising the Minimum Wage on Women; And the Importance of Ensuring a Robust Tipped Minimum Wage,” whitehouse.gov, Mar. 2014
  16. Caitlin Biegler, “Why the Minimum Wage Should Be Indexed to Inflation,” MinnPost, Mar. 10, 2014
  17. John Schmitt, “The Minimum Wage Is Too Damn Low,” Center for Economic and Policy Research website, Mar. 2012
  18. The Economist, “Pay Dirt,” economist.com, May 20, 2015
  19. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, “OECD Income Distribution Database (IDD): Gini, Poverty, Income, Methods and Concepts,” oecd.org (accessed Feb. 4, 2016)
  20. Bernie Sanders, “Income Wealth and Inequality,” berniesanders.com (accessed Feb. 9, 2016)
  21. David Autor, Alan Manning, and Christopher L. Smith, “The Contribution of the Minimum Wage to U.S. Wage Inequality over Three Decades: A Reassessment,” economics.mit.edu, Feb. 2015
  22. Jeanne Sahadi, “Will a Higher Minimum Wage Really Reduce Income Inequality?,” money.cnn.com, Jan. 15, 2014
  23. David Cooper and Douglas Hall, “Raising the Federal Minimum Wage to $10.10 Would Give Working Families, and the Overall Economy, a Much-Needed Boost,” Economic Policy Institute website, Mar. 13, 2013
  24. Jens Manuel Krogstad, “More Women than Men Earn the Federal Minimum Wage,” Pew Research Center website, May 5, 2014
  25. US Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Labor Force Characteristics by Race and Ethnicity, 2013,” bls.gov, Aug. 2014
  26. US Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2012,” bls.gov, Feb. 23, 2016
  27. Bourree Lam, “Black, White, Asian, Hispanic: The Disparities in Household Income,” The Atlantic, Sep. 16, 2014
  28. Melissa S. Kearney and Benjamin H. Harris, “The ‘Ripple Effect’ of a Minimum Wage Increase on American Workers,” The Hamilton Project website, Jan. 10, 2014
  29. Council of Economic Advisors, “The Economic Case for Raising the Minimum Wage,” whitehouse.gov, Feb. 12, 2014
  30. Janet L. Yellen, “Efficiency Wage Models of Unemployment,” Information and Macroeconomics, May 1984
  31. Alan Manning, “Why Increasing the Minimum Wage Does Not Necessarily Reduce Employment,” Social Europe, Jan. 27, 2014
  32. Arindrajit Dube, T. William Lester, and Michael Reich, “Minimum Wage Shocks, Employment Flows and Labor Market Frictions,” irle.berkeley.edu, Oct. 2014
  33. American Sustainable Business Council and Business for a Fair Minimum Wage, “Small Business Owners Favor Raising Federal Minimum Wage,” asbcouncil.org, July 2014
  34. Ana Swanson, “What You’d Need to Earn in Every State to Rent a Decent Apartment,” Washington Post, June 9, 2015
  35. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, “Living Wage Calculator for Rawlins County, Kansas,” livingwage.mit.edu (accessed Feb. 8, 2016)
  36. Oxfam America, “Hard Work, Hard Lives: Survey Exposes Harsh Reality Faced by Low-Wage Workers in the US,” oxfamamerica.org, 2013
  37. Allyson Fredericksen, “Pay Up! Long Hours and Low Pay Leave Workers at a Loss,” Alliance for a Just Society website, Oct. 2015
  38. Rajiv Bhatia, “Health Impacts of Raising California’s Minimum Wage,” Human Impact Partners website, May 2014
  39. Bay Area Regional Health Inequities Initiative (BARHII) “The Minimum Wage and Health: A Bay Area Analysis,” barhii.org, Oct. 2014
  40. Kim Krisberg, “Raising Minimum Wage Good for Public Health, Not Just Wallets: Advocates Call for Federal Increase,” The Nation’s Health, Mar. 2015
  41. Alex Smith “Working Paper: The Minimum Wage and Schooling Decisions of Teenagers,” curry.virginia.edu, Sep. 2014
  42. Aaron Pacitti, “Raising the Minimum Wage Boosts Growth and Does Not Cause Unemployment,” Huffington Post, June 27, 2015
  43. James Galbraith, “How to Save the Global Economy: Raise the Minimum Wage. A Lot.,” Foreign Policy, Jan. 3, 2012
  44. Sherry Kast, “New Express Employment Professionals Survey of Employers Shows 38% of Those Who Pay Minimum Wage Will Lay off Workers If Wage Is Hiked,” prweb.com, Mar. 19, 2014
  45. Office of the Controller, City and County of San Francisco, “Increasing the Minimum Wage: Economic Impact Report,” sfcontroller.org, July 17, 2014
  46. Steve H. Hanke, “Let the Data Speak: The Truth Behind Minimum Wage Laws,” Cato Institute website, Apr. 2014
  47. David Neumark, Mark Schweitzer, and William Wascher, “The Effects of Minimum Wages throughout the Wage Distribution,” citeseerx.ist.psu.edu, Dec. 1999
  48. George Reisman, “How Minimum Wage Laws Increase Poverty,” Mises Institute website, Apr. 4, 2014
  49. Thomas Grennes and Andris Strazds, “Is the Minimum Wage an Effective Way to Reduce Poverty or Inequality?,” EconoMonitor, June 2, 2015
  50. Gallup, “US Small-Business Owners Split on Raising Minimum Wage,” gallup.com, Nov. 22, 2013
  51. Sean Williams “Bernie Sanders’ Plan to Raise the Minimum Wage Has Plenty of Flaws,” Business Insider, Aug. 23, 2015
  52. Tim Worstall, “Walmart’s Oakland Store Closure: Oakland’s Minimum Wage Is Blamed,” Forbes, Jan. 18, 2016
  53. Greg McClure, “Study: Raising Wages to $15 an Hour for Limited-Service Restaurant Employees Would Raise Prices 4.3 Percent,” purdue.edu, July 27, 2015
  54. Allegra Abramo, “Cost of Cup of Coffee Often Climbs after Minimum Wage Hikes,” nbcnews.com, July 19, 2015
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  56. Drew DeSilver, “Who Makes Minimum Wage?,” Pew Research Center website, Sep. 8, 2014
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  58. Matthew Rousu, “Let’s Eliminate the Minimum Wage for Teenagers,” Forbes, Apr. 7, 2014
  59. Casey B. Mulligan, “The Minimum Wage and Teenage Jobs,” New York Times, Nov. 18, 2009
  60. Thomas A. Mroz and Timothy H. Savage, “The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment,” Employment Policies Institute website, Oct. 2001
  61. David Brooks, “The Minimum Wage Muddle,” New York Times, July 24, 2015
  62. Jeffrey Clemens and Michael Wither, “The Minimum Wage and the Great Recession: Evidence of Effects on the Employment and Income Trajectories of Low-Skilled Workers,” econoweb.ucsd.edu, Nov. 24, 2014
  63. James Dorn, “The Minimum Wage Delusion, and the Death of Common Sense,” Forbes, May 7, 2013
  64. Let’s Go LA, “The Minimum Wage & Housing Prices,” letsgola.wordpress.com, May 31, 2015
  65. Seth Zimmerman, “Labor Market Institutions and Economic Mobility,” urban.org (accessed Feb. 25, 2016)
  66. John W. O’Neill, “Extreme Wage Initiatives & the Hotel Industry: Impact on Local Communities and the Nation,” ahla.com, June 2014
  67. Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne, “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation,” oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk, Sep. 17, 2013
  68. Andrew Woodman, “Automation Is the Elephant in the Room of the Minimum Wage Debate,” Huffington Post, June 2, 2014
  69. Lydia DePillis, “Minimum-Wage Offensive Could Speed Arrival of Robot-Powered Restaurants,” Washington Post, Aug. 16, 2015
  70. Missouri Economic Research and Information Center (MERIC), “Cost of Living Data Series: 2015 Annual Average,” missourieconomy.org (accessed Feb. 8, 2016)
  71. Andrew G. Biggs and Mark J. Perry, “A National Minimum Wage Is a Bad Fit for Low-Cost Communities,” American Enterprise Institute website, Mar. 26, 2014
  72. Kristen Lepore, “Minimum Wage Hike Could Increase LA Rents, Economists Say,” scpr.org, May 21, 2015
  73. Brian Davis, “How Does the Minimum Wage Affect Rents?,” ezlandlordforms.com, July 20, 2015
  74. Jim Blasingame, “It’s Time to Tell the Truth about Minimum Wage,” Forbes, June 26, 2015
  75. Per Bylund, “Raising the National Minimum Wage Would Destroy the Job Market,” Library of Law and Liberty website, June 22, 2015
  76. Mark J. Perry, “Ten Reasons that Market-Determined Wages Are Better than Government-Mandated Minimum Wages,” American Enterprise Institute website, Nov. 29, 2015
  77. James Sherk, “What Is Minimum Wage: Its History and Effects on the Economy,” Heritage Foundation website, June 25, 2013
  78. Washington Free Beacon, “Duke Prof: $10/hour Minimum Wage Would Cause Mass Layoffs, Slash Benefits,” freebeacon.com, Sep. 10, 2014
  79. Natasha Chen, “Nonprofit Employer: Workers Requested Reduced Hours to Stay in Subsidized Housing,” kiro7.com, June 8, 2015
  80. Mark J. Perry, “Some Minimum Wage Research Showing Negative Effects on Both the Demand and Supply Side,” American Enterprise Institute website, Dec. 8, 2014
  81. Stephanie O. Crofton, William L. Anderson, and Emily C. Rawe, “Do Higher Real Minimum Wages Lead to More High School Dropouts? Evidence from Maryland across Races, 1993-2004,” American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Apr. 2009
  82. Dan A. Black, Terra G. McKinnish, and Seth G. Sanders, “Tight Labor Markets and the Demand for Education: Evidence from the Coal Boom and Bust,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Oct. 2005
  83. James Sherk, “Raising the Minimum Wage Hurts Vulnerable Workers’ Job Prospects without Reducing Poverty,” Heritage Foundation website, July 25, 2006
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  88. Economic Policy Institute, “Over 600 Economists Sign Letter in Support of $10.10 Minimum Wage,” Economic Policy Institute website, Jan. 14, 2014
  89. Danielle Gewurz, “Sharp Divisions in GOP Base on Raising the Minimum Wage,” Pew Research Center website, Aug. 20, 2013
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